FWGNA > Species Accounts > Pleuroceridae > Lithasia geniculata fuliginosa
Lithasia geniculata fuliginosa (Lea 1841)
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> Habitat & Distribution

The range of Lithasia geniculata (s.l.) was given by Goodrich (1940) as the Cumberland River between Burnside (KY) and Nashville, together with its major tributaries the Harpeth River and the Red River, plus the Duck/Buffalo Rivers of middle Tennessee.  Goodrich was not aware of any populations bearing the fuliginosa shell morphology in the main Cumberland, restricting the subspecies L. geniculata fuliginosa to the Harpeth, Red, Duck and Buffalo only. Populations reach maximum densities on rocky shoals, and are not typically recorded in the (often lengthy) stretchs of slackwater throughout this (rather circumscribed) range.  Considering all subspecies together, the FWGNA incidence rank of Lithasia geniculata is I-2, rare.

> Ecology & Life History

Pleurocerids are heavily-shelled, conspicuous freshwater gastropods, typically inhabiting firm substrates in shallow waters.  Males are aphallic; females can be distinguished by an egg laying groove on the right side of their foot.  Most populations are perennial and iteroparous, typically requiring more than a year to mature and living several years (Life cycle Hi of Dillon 2000: 156-162).  Eggs are affixed to hard substrates singly or in small clusters from spring to midsummer.  Pleurocerids are generalized grazers, and where present in high density can have significant effects on energy flow in streams (Dillon 2000: 86-91).

> Taxonomy & Systematics

Tryon (1873) catalogued 25 species in the genus Lithasia/Angitrema, primarily inhabiting the Tennessee/Cumberland but ranging throughout the interior drainages of seven states.  Among Calvin Goodrich's greatest contributions to science was his (1934) documentation that three of these nomina: geniculata (Haldeman), fuliginosa (Lea) and pinguis (Lea), were shell variants of a single species inhabiting the Duck River of middle Tennessee in clinal series.  This observation presaged our understanding of "cryptic phenotypic plasticity" in the North American Pleuroceridae (Dillon 2011, 2014; Dillon et al. 2013) by 80 years.  Goodrich lowered fuliginosa and pinguis to subspecific rank under geniculata, ultimately (in 1940) boiling Tryon's 25 species down to 10 species and 14 subspecies.  Burch (1989) left Goodrich's system almost untouched, trimming out one species and 8 subspecies, but adding one species more recently described, to bring the total back to 10.

Minton & Lydeard (2003) obtained mtDNA sequences from 11 L. geniculata populations: 1 identified as geniculata geniculata (1 individual), 8 as geniculata fuliginosa (17 individuals) and 2 as geniculata pinguis (8 individuals).  The 6 populations sampled from the Duck River, regardless of subspecific designation, were indistinguishable genetically. Two individual L. geniculata fuliginosa sampled from the Buffalo River (a tributary of the Duck) differed, however, from the main Duck populations by 2.8%.  This prompted Minton (2013) to describe the Buffalo Lithasia as a new species, L. bubala

Minton & Lydeard also uncovered 4.3% divergence between the common Duck River Lithasia sequence and individual L. geniculata fuliginosa sampled from Garrison Fork (of the upper Duck) and Red River (of the Cumberland), the significance of which is not clear.

Minton & Lydeard (2003) did not uncover, however, any genetic difference between L. geniculata and L. duttoniana populations in the Duck River, for which allozyme data confirm reproductive isolation.  This failure calls into question the efficacy of mtDNA sequence data, especially as applied to the systematic biology of the Duck River Lithasia.  It also led Minton et al. (2008) and Minton et al. (2018) to lump all subspecies of geniculata together with duttoniana in two separate studies of shell morphometric variation subsequently conducted down the length of the Duck.

> Supplementary Resources

> Essays

> References

Burch, J. B. (1989)  North American Freshwater Snails.  Malacological Publications, Hamburg, MI.
Dillon, R. T., Jr. (1989)
  Karyotypic evolution in pleurocerid snails: I. Genomic DNA estimated by flow cytometry. Malacologia, 31: 197-203. 
Dillon, R. T., Jr. (2000)  The Ecology of Freshwater Molluscs. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.  509 pp.

Dillon, R. T., Jr. (2011)  Robust shell phenotype is a local response to stream size in the genus Pleurocera.  Malacologia 53: 265-277.  [pdf]
Dillon, R. T., Jr.  (2014) Cryptic phenotypic plasticity in populations of the North American freshwater gastropod, Pleurocera semicarinata.  Zoological Studies 53:31. [html] [pdf]
Dillon, R. T., Jr., S. J. Jacquemin & M. Pyron (2013) Cryptic phenotypic plasticity in populations of the freshwater prosobranch snail, Pleurocera canaliculata.  Hydrobiologia 709: 117-127. [html] [pdf]
Goodrich, C. (1934) Studies of the gastropod family Pleuroceridae - I.  Occas. Pprs. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 286: 1 - 17.
Goodrich, C. (1940) The Pleuroceridae of the Ohio River drainage system.  Occas. Pprs. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 417: 1-21.
Goodrich, C. (1941) Studies of the gastropod family Pleuroceridae VIII.  Occas. Pprs. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 447: 1 - 13.
Minton, R. L. (2002)  A cladistic analysis of Lithasia (Gastropoda: Pleuroceridae) using morphological characters.  The Nautilus 116: 39-49.
Minton, R. L. (2013) A new species of Lithasia (Gastropoda: Pleuroceridae) from the Buffalo River, Tennessee, USA.  The Nautilus 127: 119 - 124.
Minton, R. L., K. C. Hart, R. Fiorillo, & C. Brown (2018)  Correlates of snail shell variation along a unidirectional freshwater gradient in Lithasia geniculata (Haldeman, 1840) (Caenogastropoda: Pleuroceridae) from the Duck River, Tennessee, USA.  Folia Malacologica 26: 95 - 102.
Minton, R. L. & C. Lydeard (2003) Phylogeny, taxonomy, genetics, and global heritage ranks of an imperiled, freshwater snail genus Lithasia (Pleuroceridae)  Molecular Ecology 12: 75-87.
Minton, R. L., A. P. Norwood & D. M. Hayes (2008) Quantifying phenotypic gradients in freshwater snails: a case study in Lithasia (Gastropoda: Pleuroceridae)  Hydrobiologia 605: 173-182
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Tryon, G. W. (1873) Land and Fresh-water shells of North America.  Part IV, Strepomatidae.  Smithsonial Miscellaneous Collections 253: 1- 434.